The Dutch settle in what is now New York, creating settlements in Manhattan, Long Island, and along the Hudson Valley. They cultivate orchards and farms and introduce many European flowers to the area. Dutch settler Adrian van der Donck wrote that the colonists grew a variety of roses, gilliflowers, tulips, crown imperials, white lilies, anemones, violets, and marigolds.

Writers’ Program, (New York, N.Y.) New York: a Guide to the Empire State, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1940).

Hobhouse, Penelope. “The Development of North American Horticulture,” Plants in Garden History. (London: Pavilion Books, ltd, 1992), 259.