Both architecture and landscape design in America were culturally influenced by European Victorianism. American families with “old money” designed summerhouses, decorated with ornate accessories, and cultivated lawns for leisurely outdoor activities.

Fascinated by the exotic, gardeners incorporated Asian and Middle Eastern elements into their plans, as well as those of England, France, and Italy.

Adams, Denise Wiles, and Laura L. S. Burchfield. American Landscapes: A Design Guide to Creating Period Garden Styles. (London: Timber Press, 2013), 120-159.

Buckler, James R., Kathryn Meehan. Victorian Gardens: A Horticultural Extravaganza. (Smithsonian Institution, 1988).