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Tsuga canadensis

Object Details

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Smithsonian Gardens Tree Collection
On Display
Hirshhorn Museum
Accession Number
2011-0206A
Description
Between 1880 and 1930, Canadian hemlock was an important part of the leather industry. Trees were felled into lakes, and then their bark was removed for tannin and the wood sent to mills. Now, this tree which was so prevalent in eastern woods is under attack by a tiny, sucking insect - the hemlock woolly adelgid. This relative of the aphid has killed most of the old growth hemlocks in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 95% of the hemlocks in Shenandoah National Park, and has spread to the Appalachians and Allegheny National Park. A specialized beetle has been developed to attack these non-native pests in the hope of preserving this important tree.
Hardiness
-40 - 10 F
Attracts
Birds
Ethnobotanical Uses
Once used for tanning leather. Some Native Americans used part of this plant to make bread and other foods. Some Native Americans and white settlers also made a tea from the leaves for its high vitamin C content.
Provenance
Uncertain
Topic
Trees
Living Collections
Range
E Canada to NC and E USA
Habitat
Moist cool valleys, moist flats, northern and eastern slopes, coves, benches, ravines, swamps; 0-1500 meters
Life Form
Evergreen tree
Average Height
40-70'
Bark Characteristics
Brown, matures from smooth, to flaky, to having wide ridges.
Cone Characteristics
Ovoid, light brown cones with ovate scales that often project outward. .5-1" long.
Foliage Characteristics
Spirally arranged, flattened needles are dark green above with 2 white bands on the underside. Minutely serrulate margins. .25-.75" long.
Structure
Pyramidal
Data Source
Smithsonian Gardens
Common Name
Canadian Hemlock
Group
[vascular plants]
Class
Equisetopsida
Subclass
Pinidae
Order
Pinales
Family
Pinaceae
Genus
Tsuga
Species
canadensis
Restrictions & Rights
Usage conditions apply
GUID
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ax7f899565e-4cab-4233-a012-08760d87a293
Record ID
ofeo-sg_2011-0206A
Photographed by: Hannele Lahti
Photographed by: Hannele Lahti
Photographed by: Hannele Lahti
Photographed by: Hannele Lahti
Photographed by: Hannele Lahti
Photographed by: Hannele Lahti
Photographed by: Hannele Lahti
Photographed by: Hannele Lahti
Photographed by: Hannele Lahti
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